How To Become Successful Entrepreneur – Motivation Of Entrepreneurship

  • Devansh 
  • 57 min read
Motivation-Of-Entrepreneurship

As already established, ‘Motivation of Entrepreneur’ is a complex form of human activity. The implementation of this activity requires colossal expenditure of vital energy from a person; it can be considered that entrepreneurship in this sense is one of the most “energy-intensive” occupations.

No one would waste his energy on this business if he did not have enough good reason for it. The question of what these grounds are can be resolved only at the level of a specific individual, his psychology. That is why the central problem of the psychological study of entrepreneurship is motivation, that is, the process of the formation of incentive principles – reasons and goals – of entrepreneurship at the personal level.

If ethics studies the goals of entrepreneurship, then psychology studies the goals of entrepreneurs, that is, such goals that the entrepreneur sets for himself, regardless of what the nature of his main activity prescribes for him.

If entrepreneurship as a system includes goals independent of its subject (first of all, making a profit), then the entrepreneur, as a free subject of the decision, can set absolutely any goals for himself. According to his economic function, the entrepreneur is called upon to maximize profit: competition imposes it as external coercive laws.

Historical literature on entrepreneurship often cites the statement of Jakob Fugger-Bosch, who, in response to advice to retire, stated that he intends to make money as long as he can do it. But the social and psychological attitudes of the entrepreneurs themselves changed and even replaced the motive for maximizing profits. And although the goals of the entrepreneur may not only not coincide with the goals of entrepreneurship, but to some extent contradict them, nevertheless, it is these subjective human goals that should be considered the main driving force that inspires an entrepreneur to carry out entrepreneurship.

For example, very many entrepreneurs would not undertake entrepreneurship at all if through this activity they could not realize goals other than making a profit, say, compensation for some personal shortcomings, the ability to fulfill their social aspirations, engage in art, science, etc… At the same time, it cannot be denied that.

Motivational Mechanism of Entrepreneurs

In principle, the motivational mechanism of entrepreneurs in its form is no different from the similar mechanism of other people. Therefore, in the study of entrepreneurial motivation there are all the same problems as in the study of motivation in general. The biggest problem in psychology, including the psychology of entrepreneurship, is the colossal gap between the unrestrained growth of empirical research and the chaotic nature of the categorical apparatus. Almost every psychological text contains a new composition and new interpretations of the main categories.

This is especially unfavorable for the research of motivation: some psychologists consider motivation to be the central element of the human psyche and the main subject of psychological study, while others generally deny the existence of such a subject, declaring it to be a harmful invention that misleads science on the right path.

The reason for such a sharp discrepancy is, apparently, in the fact that motivation is an extremely general category, covering all stages in the chain of mental processes – from the biological foundations of human existence to the most complex forms of exercising his freedom.

It is almost impossible to grasp the holistic content of motivation exclusively empirically, therefore scientists who do not want to include in the scientific apparatus anything that would not follow directly from the facts established in experience completely reject motivation. Meanwhile, nothing follows from the facts in themselves, or anything can follow from them, depending on the interpretation. As for the method of interpretation, it is determined primarily by the system of categories that the researcher uses.

Types of Motivation

The category of motivation should be considered one of the most general among those used to describe the mechanisms of the human psyche. As already mentioned, it summarizes all those mental phenomena that are involved in preparing the implementation of relatively complex forms of human activity.

Without the category of motivation, we could not single out the common thing that is inherent in all cases of conditioning human efforts, including in the field of entrepreneurship. Meanwhile, since we empirically observe the continuous waste of human forces, often leading to very tangible real consequences, the task of science is to find out the reasons for this activity. The subject of this clarification is motivation.

Motivation is a complex and universal mechanism for preparing the implementation of a person’s free activity.

In this case, we are talking only about free and conscious activity, since when speaking about spontaneous or forced activity, we can only use the term “stimulation”. Stimulation is a subsystem of motivation; this system covers those impulses that induce a person to be active, regardless of his consciousness. In this case, stimulation can be realized and even corrected by consciousness, but it can neither be generated by it, nor eliminated.

In order to fully reveal the essence of entrepreneurial motivation, we must trace all the stages of its formation – from the primary source to the result. Entrepreneurship is a very complex form of activity, associated not only with the implementation of the maximum freedom available to a person (including creative), but also with overcoming almost all difficulties that can be encountered in human activity.

On this basis, it can be argued that in the psychological aspect, entrepreneurship is a sphere of extreme motivation, that is, such motivation, within the framework of which all mental processes take place at maximum energy stress.

The starting point is the environment of motivation. Motivation can take place only in a living organism, that is, in a self-regulating system that carries out the exchange of substances, energy and information with the external environment. The existence of such a system requires a certain measure of substances, energy and information obtained from the environment, processed and released into the environment.

If such a measure is not observed, the existence of a living organism is destabilized, and in case of strong deviations from the measure, it is endangered. In this regard, any organic system initially includes a set of regulators that spontaneously (automatically) direct the exchange processes. In the human body, instincts play the role of such regulators.

Instinct (from Lat. instinctus – motivation) – the primary, innate form of motivation for living activity. The instinct is the regulator of exchange, which is included in the living organism from the very beginning – otherwise the organism would not be a self-regulating system. The set of instincts is formed as a result of biological evolution, which is based on the adaptation of various bio-species to the environment.

The main purpose of instincts is the survival of the organism in the struggle for existence. Due to natural selection, only those organisms survive, the instincts of which cause vital activity adequate to the environment. Thus, the optimal set of instincts is fixed. Since the environment is changeable, the set of instincts must also change. This need is realized through the mechanism of hereditary variability:

The main instincts are the instincts of self-preservation – individual and species (the latter, in particular, are subordinated to the instincts of reproduction and caring for offspring). These instincts are universal for all living beings on our planet, but there are also narrow-minded instincts. Moreover, versions are being put forward about specific instincts that distinguish one part of the species from another.

For example, there is a problem: is it possible to talk about the so-called “entrepreneurial instinct99″ which already at the biological level distinguishes entrepreneurs from“ ordinary people ”? Is there a special natural type of entrepreneur, that is, a person gifted with innate entrepreneurial abilities?

If a person as such exists due to the exchange of substances, energy and information, then the entrepreneur as such exists due to the exchange of products of labor. The latter type of exchange can be viewed as a continuation of the first. However, if in the case of biological exchange there are vitally determined measures of certain vital substances, energy and information, then in the case of economic exchange there are no such measures.

It is possible, of course, to single out a certain subsistence minimum, however, firstly, this minimum develops historically and is associated with a specific situation, and secondly, entrepreneurship is almost always aimed at exceeding this minimum. Consequently, the essence of entrepreneurship does not imply the presence of initially set rigid regulations of exchange, that is, the entrepreneurial instinct does not exist.

The main consequence of the instinctive impulse is the unconditioned reflex.

The term reflex (from Latin reflexus – reflected) was introduced into scientific circulation thanks to the works of the English neurologist T. Willis and the Czech physiologist I. Prochazka and denotes a natural response of the body to a stimulus. The idea of ​​a reflex was put forward by the French philosopher Rene Descartes in the first half of the 17th century.

Reflexes are divided into conditioned and unconditioned. An unconditioned reflex is a hereditarily fixed stereotyped form of response to biologically significant influences of the external world or changes in the internal environment of the body. Among the most important unconditioned reflexes, food, sexual, defensive, orienting, etc. are distinguished.

This register is missing the so-called entrepreneurial reflex. Is it possible to assume that entrepreneurial skills are laid by nature due to some initial abilities? On the one hand, it is indisputable that not everyone can become a realized entrepreneur and that this requires certain innate abilities. However, the actualization of these abilities can be caused only by a certain economic situation, but not by the biological constitution of a person.

An irritant is any element of the external or internal environment that acts as a condition for subsequent changes in the state of the organism. The concept of a stimulus is generic in relation to the concepts of “stimulus” and “signal”. In the presence of a fixed causal relationship between this event and subsequent changes in the state of the organism, the stimulus acts as a stimulus, and the corresponding change as a reaction.

The chain “instinct – unconditioned reflex – stimulus – reaction” is the essence of the so-called biological motivation, that is, the conditioning of activity, which is common to all living things – from the simplest to humans.

However, a person differs in that biological motivation is not enough to maintain his activity. In particular, it is not enough to carry out entrepreneurial activities. There are no cases of entrepreneurship in the animal kingdom yet, so we can consider entrepreneurship as a consequence of specifically human motivation.

We analyzed the first stage of the motivation mechanism – the biological one – and found that at this level of motivation, a person does not and cannot act as some kind of special “entrepreneurial being”. Thus, at the level of biological motivation, there are no specifically entrepreneurial moments, therefore, following the given logic of research, we will try to find out at what stages they arise.

Biological motivation is a strictly determining part of human motivation: here a person chooses nothing and cannot regulate anything. However, as a being open to an infinite universe of possibilities, a person does not obey biological motivation in everything, his activity needs additional incentives. This situation manifests itself already at the vital level.

Deviations from biologically determined norms of material, energy or information exchange cause tension in the self-regulating system, which at the level of elementary sensations is characterized as a need.

The state of need is caused by the lack or excess of one or another type of substance, energy or information. The social analogue of the state of need is widely known, which makes people look for non-trivial ways to obtain the necessary benefits, which is also the primary incentive to entrepreneurship.

The body’s primary response to a state of need is the formation of a need, that is, a specific feeling of lack or excess of one or another type of substance, energy or information (hunger or nausea, cold or fever, disorientation or hypermnesia, etc.). The need is the last stage of motivation, which is always formed without the participation of consciousness.

This part of motivation – from need to need inclusively – can be defined as strictly unconscious motivation. Subsequent stages of motivation can also proceed without the participation of consciousness, but there are no obstacles so that consciousness is not connected to this process.

Awareness of certain processes of motivation occurs when and only when these processes are exposed to pathogenic influences, violations, one way or another fail. At the same time, consciousness is called upon to correct, correct, “Repair” a damaged mechanism. If unconscious mechanisms operate flawlessly, they never come to the light of consciousness.

Since already at the level of strictly unconscious motivation it is possible to identify incentives for entrepreneurship, it makes sense to talk about unconscious entrepreneurship, that is, about an unaccountable impulse to search for and implement non-trivial forms of activity in the sphere of production and exchange. Such an impulse should be qualified as a propensity for entrepreneurship, which can be noted already at the early stages of the formation of a person’s personality.

Finding out the source of the existing shortage or surplus forms an attraction, that is, a state of search, a way to satisfy an arisen need. Attraction can already be both unconscious and conscious. Conscious attraction is desire.

In addition, attraction includes an intellectual moment, since the search involves not only a random enumeration of possible solutions, but also a rational orientation. For example, the initial, primary realization of the propensity for entrepreneurship, as a rule, does not occur in the first area that comes across, but where there are a minimum of obstacles and a maximum of opportunities for this. Thus, rationality is present at a fairly early stage in the formation of human motivation and, being biologically necessary, it may well act as unconscious rationality.

The stimulus in this case acts, on the one hand, as an image of the object of attraction, its reference point, and on the other, as an irritant, forcing a reaction aimed at achieving this object. In this regard, the stimulus is the main reason for activity, since, on the one hand, until the stimulus is formed, there can be no question of any activity, and on the other hand, the presence of an incentive is already sufficient for the activity to start (this also applies to economic incentives that induce various types of economic activity, including entrepreneurship).

In this regard, it can be argued that the main way of motivating a person to any activity (entrepreneurial, labor, managerial, etc.) is stimulation, that is, the provision of guarantees that the object of attraction will be achieved as a result of this activity in combination with a description of the image of this object. (advertising, propaganda, agitation).

At the same time, the stimulus can have both positive content (satisfaction of the need, to fill the shortage), and negative (satisfaction of the need to discharge the excess). It should be borne in mind that both drives and stimuli can be and often are always unconscious, which allows you to practice stimulating absolutely any activity as an impact on the subconscious, not protected by barriers consciously formed by a person (beliefs, moral principles, etc.).

Being the main reason (beginning) of human activity, the stimulus is also its goal. The goal is the ideal (intended, planned) consequence of activity. This consequence in its most general form is constructed already at the moment of activation of the rational mechanism of attraction, that is, at the moment of the appearance of a stimulus.

The ideal consequence of activity is the image of satisfying the need, but this image is the stimulus, therefore, the stimulus is both the main cause and the main goal of all activity. The stimulus contains the cause and purpose of the activity in an undivided form. The distinction between causes and goals, which most often occurs under the influence of consciousness, leads to the emergence of a motive.

The image of need satisfaction makes a person to be active (stimulus as a cause) and the image of need satisfaction attracts a person to make activity as effective as possible (incentive as a goal). Thus, between the beginning and the end, there is an active mediating link – the image of the achievement process associated with the choice of means and the application of efforts.

A formula that includes the cause of activity, and that means and goals of activity conditioned by this cause is the motive. For example, the motivational form of entrepreneurship sounds like this: exchange relations (the reason for activity) presuppose the creation of an enterprise (means of activity) with the aim of systematically making a profit by exchanging any goods (the goal of activity).

The existence of a motive is a compulsory condition for activity: where there is a motive, there is necessarily activity. A person in whom a motive is formed cannot but be active. However, the intensity and direction of real activity may not coincide and do not always coincide with what is given in the motive.

Activity is present, but it can be corrected by affects or other random circumstances, external or internal. In addition, initiating activity to correct the disturbed situation of exchange with the environment, the body enters into an additional exchange – it expends its energy. Naturally, in this case, the factor of energy saving works at the level of an unconditioned reflex.

So, not every person with entrepreneurial qualities is able to realize these qualities, and not because social conditions hinder him, but simply because he lacks the vital energy to carry out entrepreneurship. In this case, no profit can justify the efforts spent on its production. Thus, a realized entrepreneur can only be a person whose energy constitution allows him to spend a lot of energy on risky, dubious enterprises.

Due to the factor of energy saving, motive as a driving force of activity is not an unconditional guarantee of success, that is, achieving the goal. A person is forced to seek a compromise between the need to satisfy needs and the need to save energy.

In this search, he acts by trial and error. Each mistake, if it does not detect the limit of possible energy costs (for example, if it is not fatal), increases the experience of achievement. The process of gaining experience is learning.

The result of this process is the formation of the so-called “formula for success”, that is, a motive that sets the optimal balance of satisfying needs and saving energy, the best ratio of goals and means. Such a motive is fixed as a skill (that is, the result of manifestations of activity that were repeated earlier) and a stereotype (that is, a model for manifestations of activity,

A motivator is nothing more than a maximally optimized motive that presupposes the manifestation of a relatively stable response to a certain stimulus. The response elicited by a motivator is a conditioned reflex. The term “conditioned reflex” was proposed by the Russian scientist I.P. Pavlov.

Conditioned reflex- This is a reflex formed when any initially indifferent stimulus approaches in time, followed by the action of the stimulus causing an unconditioned reflex. As a result of the formation of a conditioned reflex, an irritant that had not previously elicited an appropriate reaction begins to cause it, becoming a signal (conditioned, that is, found under certain conditions) stimulus.

In the process of motivation, the signal stimulus has a specific character: the model of the optimal way to achieve success, which includes the appropriate balance and sequence of efforts, is fixed in the psyche as such. By implementing this method, a person naturally expects that a stable effect will come – the desired result of the efforts made. So,

An emotional experience that arises when the subject waits for a certain desired event and reflects the anticipated probability of its real implementation, there is hope. Thus, an entrepreneur has hope when starting a new venture. Lack of hope indicates either a lack of desire or a low estimate of the likelihood of success. Both can be considered an additional condition for the failure of such an enterprise.

If the expectation of the desired event is repeatedly justified, it (expectation) turns into confidence. In this case, the motivator acts as an attitude. Attitude is the readiness, predisposition of the subject, which arises when he anticipates the emergence of a certain stimulus and ensures a stable nature of the course of activity in relation to this stimulus.

There is good reason to speak of an entrepreneurial attitude, that is, a certain readiness of a person to adequately respond to a situation of free exchange. For example, in our country, not all people, even those gifted with obvious entrepreneurial abilities and possessing the necessary material conditions and incentives, were ready to accept the new market, since they did not have a market, entrepreneurial attitude.

They were ready for in order to move up the social ladder in conditions of centralized total and rigid planning of economic relations, even contrary to their inclinations, but they could not anticipate the market. Meanwhile, some people, even under the communist regime, were already preparing to carry out entrepreneurship (“if something happens”), and it was they who were the first to open the way into this sphere of activity in USA.

Anticipation (anticipation) of a stimulus in the presence of a stable reactivity leads to an anticipation of its result. This anticipation generates a certain interest. Thus, interest is the anticipation of the result of a stable response to a particular stimulus. Entrepreneurial interest is the anticipation of systematic profit, therefore all those areas where such a receipt is possible are the areas of actual or potential interests of entrepreneurs.

Awareness of interest leads to the formation of motivation for human activity. Motivation is a conscious explanation and justification of certain efforts. If these efforts constitute a system that influences the state of society, motivation turns into ideology.

The presence of stable interests orients a person towards certain ideals of effective behavior. Universal standards of activity and its results are formed, valid for absolutely any situation. These standards are values ​​that, as a rule, are formed into a complex hierarchical system that determines the strategic (value) orientations of the subject’s behavior. Conscious values ​​are beliefs; a conscious system of values ​​is a worldview.

At the level of values, a person determines the most general, strategic principles of activity, designed for his entire life, that is, for all possible variety of situations. This level is already above the area that could be called purely entrepreneurial motivation, since entrepreneurship is not possible in all situations – it is limited by certain conditions of production and exchange.

Therefore, an entrepreneur, in addition to his special activities, can adhere to absolutely any life principles. The core of these principles is personal meaning – a global life stimulus, which does not act as a real irritant, but as an idea formed in the process of motivation. This idea includes an image of the world, that is, a model of an abstract environment that contains all possible environments, as well as a strategic model of being in this world,

The emotional coloring of the image of the world creates a certain attitude, or worldview. The latter can be characterized as optimism or as pessimism, that is, as a positive assessment of the possibility of achieving a given maximum of benefits, or as a negative assessment, respectively.

On the basis of this assessment, an aspiration arises – minimal activity aimed at achieving the set goal, primary readiness for activity. At the level of consciousness, striving is a plan, which, in its systematic development, turns into a certain plan, which includes taking into account a person’s abilities, the level of his claims (ambitions), as well as a balanced sequence of operations.

The result of the plan is the intention – a conscious desire to complete the action, in accordance with the intended program, aimed at achieving the intended result.

The last instance of motivation, the transition to direct activity, is the will. Will is a person’s ability to realize his motivation, the mechanism of the connection between motivation and activity.

The mechanism of motivation described by us is an exhaustive chain of its stages. Understanding this mechanism is in itself a difficult task, so we will demonstrate it using a single example of motivating a specific entrepreneur.

Let’s start with the level of motivation at which specific entrepreneurial aspects are found. A certain individual is in a state of need – he eats irregularly and does not have a constant overnight stay.

At the same time, the people surrounding this person satisfy similar needs by exchanging for a universal equivalent – money. Thus, the state of need, caused by the lack of food and energy, condenses into a need characterized as lack of money (analogy of hunger or thirst).

Lack of money forms a person’s attraction to money, pushes him to an unaccountable impulse to search for and implement any form of activity in the sphere of production and exchange. As a result, a person is faced with an intellectual task – where exactly and how such activity can be shown.

The need to solve this problem awakens the human consciousness, due to which there is a clear desire to make money. The way of receiving money becomes the main incentive for finding a job. Having turned to various employment options, a person discovers that none of them guarantees him a stable receipt of a sufficient amount of money. Meanwhile, he sees how people who independently realize their abilities receive as much money as he would be comfortable with.

Then this person has a distinct entrepreneurial motive: people who obtain certain benefits through their own initiative systematically exchange these benefits for a sufficiently large amount of money, so it makes sense to show a similar initiative yourself. In accordance with this motive, a person tries himself in various areas of entrepreneurship: he becomes an advertising agent under a contract, tries to crank up a trade operation, mediates, etc.

It turns out that the implementation of all these options does not pay off the effort expended: the work is great – the profit is negligible. However, without abandoning attempts to find himself in business, a person nevertheless discovers that sphere that is not only acceptable in terms of the nature of communication and the activities carried out within its framework, but also quite profitable and promising, the sphere of book trade.

Having invested his last savings in buying a book on business topics, he successfully sells it, thanks to which he makes a relatively solid profit. Having invested this profit in a new purchase of the same book, he again receives a profit, but, accordingly, even more.

Thus, he develops a motivator – the desire to invest in business literature, and a conditioned reflex – the expectation of making a profit from the sale of this literature. Due to the fact that this calculation is repeatedly justified as a result of the sale of other books of a similar nature, the bookseller forms an attitude: when he receives information about the appearance of a new book of the corresponding direction, he is always ready to immediately invest in its purchase. Since this operation in almost all cases brings him tangible benefits,

Realizing this interest, the bookseller forms for himself certain ideas about what the ultimate reasons and goals of his activities are, which constitutes his entrepreneurial motivation.

On the other hand, summarizing the features of his activities in the field of bookselling, the entrepreneur singles out for himself such moments that help him to get the maximum benefit in any situation.

Thanks to this, he finds the optimal strategy of behavior suitable for all the vicissitudes of the business and based on certain values ​​adopted in this environment. These values, revealed in the communication of booksellers, form certain beliefs of the entrepreneur, on the basis of which he develops his views on other areas of life.

At this stage, the promotion of an entrepreneur along the motivational chain goes beyond that section of it that is associated with entrepreneurial (as, indeed, any other) activity, and moves to the stage of universal human motivation.

Such assessments become the basis of the conscious orientation of the individual in the sphere of the potential choice of the line of behavior, and knowing what to choose, our bookseller can confidently form the desire for something. If the achievement of the chosen goal involves a complex sequence of operations, a person forms a plan, the implementation of which is set in motion by his will.

By setting a strategic goal and building a detailed plan to achieve it, the bookseller gains a strong will, for example, for a far-reaching entrepreneurial career, as a result of which he creates a powerful bookselling company with a strong position in the market and generating a very solid and stable entrepreneurial income for its owner, who started with zero.

In the process of individual interviews and collective conversations, the topic of motivating entrepreneurship has arisen repeatedly. As the leading motive, which was mentioned by all respondents, there is a desire to improve their financial situation. Prosperity, according to many

entrepreneurs, gives a feeling of freedom and self-confidence, “allows a person to straighten his shoulders.” However, this motivation is specific. The desire for material well-being, which was so important at the beginning of the journey, for the majority of the respondents ceased to be an end in itself at the moment of reaching a certain material level and satisfying basic life needs.

That is why people who started doing business a few years ago, although they recognized the importance of material incentives, nevertheless brought to the fore the motives associated with freedom and self-realization. For many American entrepreneurs, joining business was associated with finding their own place in life.

In general, in the entrepreneurial environment, several groups can be distinguished, differing in motives of activity. Among them are businessmen focused on improving their financial situation; “Enthusiasts” who want to put their professional idea into practice or who go into business for political reasons; people seeking to find their new face and place in life; finally, due to the circumstances, trying to find his place in business. The boundaries between these groups are rather arbitrary, and experience shows that over time, one type of motivation may change or be supplanted by others.

According to “Expertise”, among the motives that prompted entrepreneurs to start their own business, initially there were at least three – material, the desire to change life and gain freedom and independence. The first worked among small and medium-sized entrepreneurs. The second motive, perhaps, dominated among big business.

“My wife and I wanted to radically change our lives,” noted the founder of one of the first joint ventures in the country. Finally, the third is almost always present. Typical statements of the respondents: “I was tired of feeling my slavery at every step”, “I wanted to relieve myself of any leadership from above”, “I strove for an independent existence”.

Many entrepreneurs relatively quickly reached the level of income, when exceeding which the value of new material goods approached zero. “The problem of personal interest,” noted the head of a large financial and industrial group, “is very acute only when you are on the brink of economic security. When your financial situation exceeds this limit, if you feel that you are economically invulnerable, then this problem ceases to interest you ”.

Today, a motivational mechanism is emerging among American entrepreneurs, which in many respects differs from the one prevailing among businessmen in developed capitalist countries. According to M. Urnov’s research, the motivation of British entrepreneurs is dominated by the desire for professional self-improvement, pride in solving non-traditional problems, and the desire to maintain the balance between work and private life they need.

A fundamentally different motivation is characteristic of American entrepreneurs. Unlike British businessmen, who have largely undergone bureaucratization (in the terminology of M. Weber) and clearly strive to preserve a gentleman’s lifestyle in any situation, the US market has become a kind of sport where they realize their need for struggle, their desire to win, their desire to prove to themselves their superiority over others.

They do not accept the corporate rules of the game and any form of subordination poorly; the motive of power is very important for them. To use the terminology of the American sociologist M. Macoby, they resemble the classic type of “jungle man”.

As is known from Western sociological studies, the desire to dominate, the ability to take initiative and self-confidence are positively correlated with business success; on the contrary, an orientation towards a highly relaxed and stress-free life in a pleasant work environment is a negative factor for business success.

At the same time, another motive is acting – “the man-player” (M. Makoby’s term), whose main interest is in solving new problems, in creativity. “For me,” the chief director of a large joint venture explained, “business is in many ways a kind of game of mind and emotions, in other words, it’s not a routine, not a service”. In one of the recent television interviews, the manufacturer A. Panikin, talking about his work, emphasized: “Probably God was happy when he was creating”.

As already established, entrepreneurship is a complex form of human activity. The implementation of this activity requires colossal expenditure of vital energy from a person; it can be considered that entrepreneurship in this sense is one of the most “energy-intensive” occupations.

No one would waste his energy on this business if he did not have enough good reason for it. The question of what these grounds are can be resolved only at the level of a specific individual, his psychology. That is why the central problem of the psychological study of entrepreneurship is motivation, that is, the process of the formation of incentive principles – reasons and goals – of entrepreneurship at the personal level.

If ethics studies the goals of entrepreneurship, then psychology studies the goals of entrepreneurs, that is, such goals9 that the entrepreneur sets for himself, regardless of what the nature of his main activity prescribes for him. If entrepreneurship as a system includes goals independent of its subject (first of all, making a profit), then the entrepreneur, as a free subject of the decision, can set absolutely any goals for himself.

According to his economic function, the entrepreneur is called upon to maximize profit: competition imposes it as external coercive laws. Historical literature on entrepreneurship often cites the statement of Jakob Fugger-Bosch, who, in response to advice to retire, stated that he intends to make money as long as he can do it.

But the social and psychological attitudes of the entrepreneurs themselves changed and even replaced the motive for maximizing profits. And although the goals of the entrepreneur may not only not coincide with the goals of entrepreneurship, but to some extent contradict them, nevertheless, it is these subjective human goals that should be considered the main driving force that inspires an entrepreneur to carry out entrepreneurship.

For example, very many entrepreneurs would not undertake entrepreneurship at all if through this activity they could not realize goals other than making a profit, say, compensation for some personal shortcomings, the ability to fulfill their social aspirations, engage in art, science, etc. .P. At the same time, it cannot be denied that

In principle, the motivational mechanism of entrepreneurs in its form is no different from the similar mechanism of other people. Therefore, in the study of entrepreneurial motivation there are all the same problems as in the study of motivation in general.

The biggest problem in psychology, including the psychology of entrepreneurship, is the colossal gap between the unrestrained growth of empirical research and the chaotic nature of the categorical apparatus. Almost every psychological text contains a new composition and new interpretations of the main categories.

This is especially unfavorable for the research of motivation: some psychologists consider motivation to be the central element of the human psyche and the main subject of psychological study, while others generally deny the existence of such a subject, declaring it to be a harmful invention that misleads science on the right path.

The reason for such a sharp discrepancy is, apparently, in the fact that motivation is an extremely general category, covering all stages in the chain of mental processes – from the biological foundations of human existence to the most complex forms of exercising his freedom.

It is almost impossible to grasp the holistic content of motivation exclusively empirically, therefore scientists who do not want to include in the scientific apparatus anything that would not follow directly from the facts established in experience completely reject motivation.

Meanwhile, nothing follows from the facts in themselves, or anything can follow from them, depending on the interpretation. As for the method of interpretation, it is determined primarily by the system of categories that the researcher uses.

The category of motivation should be considered one of the most general among those used to describe the mechanisms of the human psyche. As already mentioned, it summarizes all those mental phenomena that are involved in preparing the implementation of relatively complex forms of human activity.

Without the category of motivation, we could not single out the common thing that is inherent in all cases of conditioning human efforts, including in the field of entrepreneurship. Meanwhile, since we empirically observe the continuous waste of human forces, often leading to very tangible real consequences, the task of science is to find out the reasons for this activity. The subject of this clarification is motivation.

Motivation is a complex and universal mechanism for preparing the implementation of a person’s free activity.

In this case, we are talking only about free and conscious activity, since when speaking about spontaneous or forced activity, we can only use the term “stimulation”. Stimulation is a subsystem of motivation; this system covers those impulses that induce a person to be active, regardless of his consciousness. In this case, stimulation can be realized and even corrected by consciousness, but it can neither be generated by it, nor eliminated.

In order to fully reveal the essence of entrepreneurial motivation, we must trace all the stages of its formation – from the primary source to the result. Entrepreneurship is a very complex form of activity, associated not only with the implementation of the maximum freedom available to a person (including creative), but also with overcoming almost all difficulties that can be encountered in human activity.

On this basis, it can be argued that in the psychological aspect, entrepreneurship is a sphere of extreme motivation, that is, such motivation, within the framework of which all mental processes take place at maximum energy stress.

The starting point is the environment of motivation. Motivation can take place only in a living organism, that is, in a self-regulating system that carries out the exchange of substances, energy and information with the external environment. The existence of such a system requires a certain measure of substances, energy and information obtained from the environment, processed and released into the environment.

If such a measure is not observed, the existence of a living organism is destabilized, and in case of strong deviations from the measure, it is endangered. In this regard, any organic system initially includes a set of regulators that spontaneously (automatically) direct the exchange processes. In the human body, instincts play the role of such regulators.

Instinct(from Lat. instinctus – motivation) – the primary, innate form of motivation for living activity. The instinct is the regulator of exchange, which is included in the living organism from the very beginning – otherwise the organism would not be a self-regulating system. The set of instincts is formed as a result of biological evolution, which is based on the adaptation of various bio-species to the environment.

The main purpose of instincts is the survival of the organism in the struggle for existence. Due to natural selection, only those organisms survive, the instincts of which cause vital activity adequate to the environment. Thus, the optimal set of instincts is fixed. Since the environment is changeable, the set of instincts must also change. This need is realized through the mechanism of hereditary variability:

The main instincts are the instincts of self-preservation – individual and species (the latter, in particular, are subordinated to the instincts of reproduction and caring for offspring). These instincts are universal for all living beings on our planet, but there are also narrow-minded instincts. Moreover, versions are being put forward about specific instincts that distinguish one part of the species from another.

For example, there is a problem: is it possible to talk about the so-called “entrepreneurial instinct99″ which already at the biological level distinguishes entrepreneurs from“ ordinary people ”? Is there a special natural type of entrepreneur, that is, a person gifted with innate entrepreneurial abilities?

If a person as such exists due to the exchange of substances, energy and information, then the entrepreneur as such exists due to the exchange of products of labor. The latter type of exchange can be viewed as a continuation of the first. However, if in the case of biological exchange there are vitally determined measures of certain vital substances, energy and information, then in the case of economic exchange there are no such measures.

It is possible, of course, to single out a certain subsistence minimum, however, firstly, this minimum develops historically and is associated with a specific situation, and secondly, entrepreneurship is almost always aimed at exceeding this minimum. Consequently, the essence of entrepreneurship does not imply the presence of initially set rigid regulations of exchange, that is, the entrepreneurial instinct does not exist.

The main consequence of the instinctive impulse is the unconditioned reflex.

The term reflex (from Latin reflexus – reflected) was introduced into scientific circulation thanks to the works of the English neurologist T. Willis and the Czech physiologist I. Prochazka and denotes a natural response of the body to a stimulus. The idea of ​​a reflex was put forward by the French philosopher Rene Descartes in the first half of the 17th century.

Reflexes are divided into conditioned and unconditioned. An unconditioned reflex is a hereditarily fixed stereotyped form of response to biologically significant influences of the external world or changes in the internal environment of the body. Among the most important unconditioned reflexes, food, sexual, defensive, orienting, etc. are distinguished.

This register is missing the so-called entrepreneurial reflex. Is it possible to assume that entrepreneurial skills are laid by nature due to some initial abilities? On the one hand, it is indisputable that not everyone can become a realized entrepreneur and that this requires certain innate abilities. However, the actualization of these abilities can be caused only by a certain economic situation, but not by the biological constitution of a person.

An irritant is any element of the external or internal environment that acts as a condition for subsequent changes in the state of the organism. The concept of a stimulus is generic in relation to the concepts of “stimulus” and “signal”. In the presence of a fixed causal relationship between this event and subsequent changes in the state of the organism, the stimulus acts as a stimulus, and the corresponding change as a reaction.

The chain “instinct – unconditioned reflex – stimulus – reaction” is the essence of the so-called biological motivation, that is, the conditioning of activity, which is common to all living things – from the simplest to humans. However, a person differs in that biological motivation is not enough to maintain his activity. In particular, it is not enough to carry out entrepreneurial activities. There are no cases of entrepreneurship in the animal kingdom yet, so we can consider entrepreneurship as a consequence of specifically human motivation.

We analyzed the first stage of the motivation mechanism – the biological one – and found that at this level of motivation, a person does not and cannot act as some kind of special “entrepreneurial being”. Thus, at the level of biological motivation, there are no specifically entrepreneurial moments, therefore, following the given logic of research, we will try to find out at what stages they arise.

Biological motivation is a strictly determining part of human motivation: here a person chooses nothing and cannot regulate anything. However, as a being open to an infinite universe of possibilities, a person does not obey biological motivation in everything, his activity needs additional incentives. This situation manifests itself already at the vital level.

Deviations from biologically determined norms of material, energy or information exchange cause tension in the self-regulating system, which at the level of elementary sensations is characterized as a need. The state of need is caused by the lack or excess of one or another type of substance, energy or information. The social analogue of the state of need is widely known, which makes people look for non-trivial ways to obtain the necessary benefits, which is also the primary incentive to entrepreneurship.

The body’s primary response to a state of need is the formation of a need, that is, a specific feeling of lack or excess of one or another type of substance, energy or information (hunger or nausea, cold or fever, disorientation or hypermnesia, etc.). The need is the last stage of motivation, which is always formed without the participation of consciousness. This part of motivation – from need to need inclusively – can be defined as strictly unconscious motivation. Subsequent stages of motivation can also proceed without the participation of consciousness, but there are no obstacles so that consciousness is not connected to this process. Awareness of certain processes of motivation occurs when and only when these processes are exposed to pathogenic influences, violations, one way or another fail. At the same time, consciousness is called upon to correct, correct, “Repair” a damaged mechanism. If unconscious mechanisms operate flawlessly, they never come to the light of consciousness.

Since already at the level of strictly unconscious motivation it is possible to identify incentives for entrepreneurship, it makes sense to talk about unconscious entrepreneurship, that is, about an unaccountable impulse to search for and implement non-trivial forms of activity in the sphere of production and exchange. Such an impulse should be qualified as a propensity for entrepreneurship, which can be noted already at the early stages of the formation of a person’s personality.

Finding out the source of the existing shortage or surplus forms an attraction, that is, a state of search, a way to satisfy an arisen need. Attraction can already be both unconscious and conscious. Conscious attraction is desire. In addition, attraction includes an intellectual moment, since the search involves not only a random enumeration of possible solutions, but also a rational orientation. For example, the initial, primary realization of the propensity for entrepreneurship, as a rule, does not occur in the first area that comes across, but where there are a minimum of obstacles and a maximum of opportunities for this. Thus, rationality is present at a fairly early stage in the formation of human motivation and, being biologically necessary, it may well act as unconscious rationality.

The stimulus in this case acts, on the one hand, as an image of the object of attraction, its reference point, and on the other, as an irritant, forcing a reaction aimed at achieving this object. In this regard, the stimulus is the main reason for activity, since, on the one hand, until the stimulus is formed, there can be no question of any activity, and on the other hand, the presence of an incentive is already sufficient for the activity to start (this also applies to economic incentives that induce various types of economic activity, including entrepreneurship).

In this regard, it can be argued that the main way of motivating a person to any activity (entrepreneurial, labor, managerial, etc.) is stimulation, that is, the provision of guarantees that the object of attraction will be achieved as a result of this activity in combination with a description of the image of this object. (advertising, propaganda, agitation). At the same time, the stimulus can have both positive content (satisfaction of the need, to fill the shortage), and negative (satisfaction of the need to discharge the excess). It should be borne in mind that both drives and stimuli can be and often are always unconscious, which allows you to practice stimulating absolutely any activity as an impact on the subconscious, not protected by barriers consciously formed by a person (beliefs, moral principles, etc.).

Being the main reason (beginning) of human activity, the stimulus is also its goal. The goal is the ideal (intended, planned) consequence of activity. This consequence in its most general form is constructed already at the moment of activation of the rational mechanism of attraction, that is, at the moment of the appearance of a stimulus. The ideal consequence of activity is the image of satisfying the need, but this image is the stimulus, therefore, the stimulus is both the main cause and the main goal of all activity. The stimulus contains the cause and purpose of the activity in an undivided form. The distinction between causes and goals, which most often occurs under the influence of consciousness, leads to the emergence of a motive.

The image of need satisfaction makes a person to be active (stimulus as a cause) and the image of need satisfaction attracts a person to make activity as effective as possible (incentive as a goal). Thus, between the beginning and the end, there is an active mediating link – the image of the achievement process associated with the choice of means and the application of efforts. A formula that includes the cause of activity, and that means and goals of activity conditioned by this cause is the motive. For example, the motivational form of entrepreneurship sounds like this: exchange relations (the reason for activity) presuppose the creation of an enterprise (means of activity) with the aim of systematically making a profit by exchanging any goods (the goal of activity).

The existence of a motive is a compulsory condition for activity: where there is a motive, there is necessarily activity. A person in whom a motive is formed cannot but be active. However, the intensity and direction of real activity may not coincide and do not always coincide with what is given in the motive. Activity is present, but it can be corrected by affects or other random circumstances, external or internal. In addition, initiating activity to correct the disturbed situation of exchange with the environment, the body enters into an additional exchange – it expends its energy. Naturally, in this case, the factor of energy saving works at the level of an unconditioned reflex. So, not every person with entrepreneurial qualities is able to realize these qualities, and not because social conditions hinder him, but simply because he lacks the vital energy to carry out entrepreneurship. In this case, no profit can justify the efforts spent on its production. Thus, a realized entrepreneur can only be a person whose energy constitution allows him to spend a lot of energy on risky, dubious enterprises.

Due to the factor of energy saving, motive as a driving force of activity is not an unconditional guarantee of success, that is, achieving the goal. A person is forced to seek a compromise between the need to satisfy needs and the need to save energy. In this search, he acts by trial and error. Each mistake, if it does not detect the limit of possible energy costs (for example, if it is not fatal), increases the experience of achievement. The process of gaining experience is learning. The result of this process is the formation of the so-called “formula for success”, that is, a motive that sets the optimal balance of satisfying needs and saving energy, the best ratio of goals and means. Such a motive is fixed as a skill (that is, the result of manifestations of activity that were repeated earlier) and a stereotype (that is, a model for manifestations of activity,

A motivator is nothing more than a maximally optimized motive that presupposes the manifestation of a relatively stable response to a certain stimulus. The response elicited by a motivator is a conditioned reflex. The term “conditioned reflex” was proposed by the Russian scientist I.P. Pavlov.

Conditioned reflex- This is a reflex formed when any initially indifferent stimulus approaches in time, followed by the action of the stimulus causing an unconditioned reflex. As a result of the formation of a conditioned reflex, an irritant that had not previously elicited an appropriate reaction begins to cause it, becoming a signal (conditioned, that is, found under certain conditions) stimulus. In the process of motivation, the signal stimulus has a specific character: the model of the optimal way to achieve success, which includes the appropriate balance and sequence of efforts, is fixed in the psyche as such. By implementing this method, a person naturally expects that a stable effect will come – the desired result of the efforts made. So,

An emotional experience that arises when the subject waits for a certain desired event and reflects the anticipated probability of its real implementation, there is hope. Thus, an entrepreneur has hope when starting a new venture. Lack of hope indicates either a lack of desire or a low estimate of the likelihood of success. Both can be considered an additional condition for the failure of such an enterprise.

If the expectation of the desired event is repeatedly justified, it (expectation) turns into confidence. In this case, the motivator acts as an attitude. Attitude is the readiness, predisposition of the subject, which arises when he anticipates the emergence of a certain stimulus and ensures a stable nature of the course of activity in relation to this stimulus. There is good reason to speak of an entrepreneurial attitude, that is, a certain readiness of a person to adequately respond to a situation of free exchange. For example, in our country, not all people, even those gifted with obvious entrepreneurial abilities and possessing the necessary material conditions and incentives, were ready to accept the new market, since they did not have a market, entrepreneurial attitude. They were ready for in order to move up the social ladder in conditions of centralized total and rigid planning of economic relations, even contrary to their inclinations, but they could not anticipate the market. Meanwhile, some people, even under the communist regime, were already preparing to carry out entrepreneurship (“if something happens”), and it was they who were the first to open the way into this sphere of activity in USA.

Anticipation (anticipation) of a stimulus in the presence of a stable reactivity leads to an anticipation of its result. This anticipation generates a certain interest. Thus, interest is the anticipation of the result of a stable response to a particular stimulus. Entrepreneurial interest is the anticipation of systematic profit, therefore all those areas where such a receipt is possible are the areas of actual or potential interests of entrepreneurs.

Awareness of interest leads to the formation of motivation for human activity. Motivation is a conscious explanation and justification of certain efforts. If these efforts constitute a system that influences the state of society, motivation turns into ideology.

The presence of stable interests orients a person towards certain ideals of effective behavior. Universal standards of activity and its results are formed, valid for absolutely any situation. These standards are values ​​that, as a rule, are formed into a complex hierarchical system that determines the strategic (value) orientations of the subject’s behavior. Conscious values ​​are beliefs; a conscious system of values ​​is a worldview.

At the level of values, a person determines the most general, strategic principles of activity, designed for his entire life, that is, for all possible variety of situations. This level is already above the area that could be called purely entrepreneurial motivation, since entrepreneurship is not possible in all situations – it is limited by certain conditions of production and exchange. Therefore, an entrepreneur, in addition to his special activities, can adhere to absolutely any life principles. The core of these principles is personal meaning – a global life stimulus, which does not act as a real irritant, but as an idea formed in the process of motivation. This idea includes an image of the world, that is, a model of an abstract environment that contains all possible environments, as well as a strategic model of being in this world,

The emotional coloring of the image of the world creates a certain attitude, or worldview. The latter can be characterized as optimism or as pessimism, that is, as a positive assessment of the possibility of achieving a given maximum of benefits, or as a negative assessment, respectively.

On the basis of this assessment, an aspiration arises – minimal activity aimed at achieving the set goal, primary readiness for activity. At the level of consciousness, striving is a plan, which, in its systematic development, turns into a certain plan, which includes taking into account a person’s abilities, the level of his claims (ambitions), as well as a balanced sequence of operations.

The result of the plan is the intention – a conscious desire to complete the action, in accordance with the intended program, aimed at achieving the intended result.

The last instance of motivation, the transition to direct activity, is the will. Will is a person’s ability to realize his motivation, the mechanism of the connection between motivation and activity.

The mechanism of motivation described by us is an exhaustive chain of its stages. Understanding this mechanism is in itself a difficult task, so we will demonstrate it using a single example of motivating a specific entrepreneur.

Let’s start with the level of motivation at which specific entrepreneurial aspects are found. A certain individual is in a state of need – he eats irregularly and does not have a constant overnight stay. At the same time, the people surrounding this person satisfy similar needs by exchanging for a universal equivalent – money. Thus, the state of need, caused by the lack of food and energy, condenses into a need characterized as lack of money (analogy of hunger or thirst).

Lack of money forms a person’s attraction to money, pushes him to an unaccountable impulse to search for and implement any form of activity in the sphere of production and exchange. As a result, a person is faced with an intellectual task – where exactly and how such activity can be shown. The need to solve this problem awakens the human consciousness, due to which there is a clear desire to make money. The way of receiving money becomes the main incentive for finding a job. Having turned to various employment options, a person discovers that none of them guarantees him a stable receipt of a sufficient amount of money. Meanwhile, he sees how people who independently realize their abilities receive as much money as he would be comfortable with.

Then this person has a distinct entrepreneurial motive: people who obtain certain benefits through their own initiative systematically exchange these benefits for a sufficiently large amount of money, so it makes sense to show a similar initiative yourself. In accordance with this motive, a person tries himself in various areas of entrepreneurship: he becomes an advertising agent under a contract, tries to crank up a trade operation, mediates, etc. It turns out that the implementation of all these options does not pay off the effort expended: the work is great – the profit is negligible. However, without abandoning attempts to find himself in business, a person nevertheless discovers that sphere that is not only acceptable in terms of the nature of communication and the activities carried out within its framework, but also quite profitable and promising, the sphere of book trade.

Having invested his last savings in buying a book on business topics, he successfully sells it, thanks to which he makes a relatively solid profit. Having invested this profit in a new purchase of the same book, he again receives a profit, but, accordingly, even more. Thus, he develops a motivator – the desire to invest in business literature, and a conditioned reflex – the expectation of making a profit from the sale of this literature. Due to the fact that this calculation is repeatedly justified as a result of the sale of other books of a similar nature, the bookseller forms an attitude: when he receives information about the appearance of a new book of the corresponding direction, he is always ready to immediately invest in its purchase. Since this operation in almost all cases brings him tangible benefits,

Realizing this interest, the bookseller forms for himself certain ideas about what the ultimate reasons and goals of his activities are, which constitutes his entrepreneurial motivation.

On the other hand, summarizing the features of his activities in the field of bookselling, the entrepreneur singles out for himself such moments that help him to get the maximum benefit in any situation. Thanks to this, he finds the optimal strategy of behavior suitable for all the vicissitudes of the business and based on certain values ​​adopted in this environment. These values, revealed in the communication of booksellers, form certain beliefs of the entrepreneur, on the basis of which he develops his views on other areas of life. At this stage, the promotion of an entrepreneur along the motivational chain goes beyond that section of it that is associated with entrepreneurial (as, indeed, any other) activity, and moves to the stage of universal human motivation.

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Such assessments become the basis of the conscious orientation of the individual in the sphere of the potential choice of the line of behavior, and knowing what to choose, our bookseller can confidently form the desire for something. If the achievement of the chosen goal involves a complex sequence of operations, a person forms a plan, the implementation of which is set in motion by his will.

By setting a strategic goal and building a detailed plan to achieve it, the bookseller gains a strong will, for example, for a far-reaching entrepreneurial career, as a result of which he creates a powerful bookselling company with a strong position in the market and generating a very solid and stable entrepreneurial income for its owner, who started with zero.

In the process of individual interviews and collective conversations, the topic of motivating entrepreneurship has arisen repeatedly. As the leading motive, which was mentioned by all respondents, there is a desire to improve their financial situation. Prosperity, according to many

entrepreneurs, gives a feeling of freedom and self-confidence, “allows a person to straighten his shoulders.” However, this motivation is specific. The desire for material well-being, which was so important at the beginning of the journey, for the majority of the respondents ceased to be an end in itself at the moment of reaching a certain material level and satisfying basic life needs. That is why people who started doing business a few years ago, although they recognized the importance of material incentives, nevertheless brought to the fore the motives associated with freedom and self-realization. For many American entrepreneurs, joining business was associated with finding their own place in life.

In general, in the entrepreneurial environment, several groups can be distinguished, differing in motives of activity. Among them are businessmen focused on improving their financial situation; “Enthusiasts” who want to put their professional idea into practice or who go into business for political reasons; people seeking to find their new face and place in life; finally, due to the circumstances, trying to find his place in business. The boundaries between these groups are rather arbitrary, and experience shows that over time, one type of motivation may change or be supplanted by others.

According to “Expertise”, among the motives that prompted entrepreneurs to start their own business, initially there were at least three – material, the desire to change life and gain freedom and independence. The first worked among small and medium-sized entrepreneurs. The second motive, perhaps, dominated among big business. “My wife and I wanted to radically change our lives,” noted the founder of one of the first joint ventures in the country. Finally, the third is almost always present. Typical statements of the respondents: “I was tired of feeling my slavery at every step”, “I wanted to relieve myself of any leadership from above”, “I strove for an independent existence”.

Many entrepreneurs relatively quickly reached the level of income, when exceeding which the value of new material goods approached zero. “The problem of personal interest,” noted the head of a large financial and industrial group, “is very acute only when you are on the brink of economic security. When your financial situation exceeds this limit, if you feel that you are economically invulnerable, then this problem ceases to interest you ”.

Today, a motivational mechanism is emerging among American entrepreneurs, which in many respects differs from the one prevailing among businessmen in developed capitalist countries. According to M. Urnov’s research, the motivation of British entrepreneurs is dominated by the desire for professional self-improvement, pride in solving non-traditional problems, and the desire to maintain the balance between work and private life they need. A fundamentally different motivation is characteristic of American entrepreneurs.

Unlike British businessmen, who have largely undergone bureaucratization (in the terminology of M. Weber) and clearly strive to preserve a gentleman’s lifestyle in any situation, the US market has become a kind of sport where they realize their need for struggle, their desire to win. their desire to prove to themselves their superiority over others. They do not accept the corporate rules of the game and any form of subordination poorly; the motive of power is very important for them. To use the terminology of the American sociologist M. Macoby, they resemble the classic type of “jungle man”.

As is known from Western sociological studies, the desire to dominate, the ability to take initiative and self-confidence are positively correlated with business success; on the contrary, an orientation towards a highly relaxed and stress-free life in a pleasant work environment is a negative factor for business success.

At the same time, another motive is acting – “the man-player” (M. Makoby’s term), whose main interest is in solving new problems, in creativity. “For me,” the chief director of a large joint venture explained, “business is in many ways a kind of game of mind and emotions, in other words, it’s not a routine, not a service”. In one of the recent television interviews, the manufacturer A. Panikin, talking about his work, emphasized: “Probably God was happy when he was creating”.

In addition, social motives have been increasingly heard in the motivation of entrepreneurs lately. First of all, the conviction that they are “capable of making this country a normal, that is, a strong and rich country”, that only private entrepreneurship can revive USA. It can also prevent the economy from turning in the opposite direction.