An important problem in the theory of motivation is to consider the diversity of its types. The following types of motivation are distinguished: external motivation and internal motivation; based on results and status; positive and negative; individual and group; motivation and self-motivation. Consider what constitutes external and internal labor motivation.
F. Herzbsrg in 1957 identified two types of motivation: internal and external. Intrinsic motivation refers to self-created factors that influence people to behave in a certain way or move in a certain direction (for example, responsibility, independence, the ability to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting work, career opportunities).
External motivation is what is done for people to motivate them, for example, rewards, praise, promotion, punishment. And if the most obvious external measures lead to an immediate and powerful effect, but most often they act for a short time, then internal factors act deeper and longer, since they are inherent in people themselves.
Extrinsic motivation can take two forms – administrative and economic. Extrinsic motivation is sometimes called stimulation. Administrative motivation means performing work on a team, order, i.e. under direct coercion with appropriate sanctions for violations of established norms.
Economic motivation is carried out through economic incentives (wages, dividends). With this type of motivation, the manager needs to know what methods can encourage a particular employee to do the job efficiently and on time: it can be both timely payment for work and a bonus, or praise or another type of moral encouragement.
Intrinsic motivation is a more complex process and involves the formation of a certain motivational structure of a person. In this case, it is necessary to find a psychological way to enhance the desirable qualities of the employee’s personality and weaken negative factors, for example, reducing the monotony of work. This type of motivation requires a lot of effort, knowledge and ability from the manager. In production activities, both types of motivation interact closely.
The term “intrinsic motivation” itself was first introduced in the late 1950s, when two works appeared – a book by R. Woodworth and an article by R. White.
Motivation associated not with external circumstances, but with the very content of the activity. This is a type of behavior that occurs from within the personality self and is completely inside the behavior itself. As V. I. Chirkov notes, “people are involved in activities for its own sake, and not to achieve any external rewards. Such activity is an end in itself, and not a means to achieve some other goal ” 1 .
Examples of Internal Motivation include:
- dream, self-realization;
- ideas, creativity;
- need for someone, for something;
- personal growth;
- the need for communication.
We can say that intrinsic motivation is very effective, it is a kind of end in itself: a person is “invested” in any process, and this activity gives him pleasure.
Thanks to internal motivation, a person easily overcomes difficulties and problems that arise on the way to the goal and makes every effort to achieve a successful result. Intrinsic motivation encourages action.
In the labor sphere, intrinsic motivation is aimed at developing and maintaining a positive attitude of the employee to work. The main task of managers is to create an atmosphere in which high internal motivation of employees can be formed.
The following components of internal motivation of employees can be distinguished :
- Work is a continuation of a person’s life, on it he spends a huge part of his life. This time should be spent with pleasure, and not considered as hard labor or serving a heavy duty;
- Work must morally satisfy a person, he must see the results of his work, its usefulness, necessity;
- A person at work should feel their social status, authority among colleagues, etc.
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How Can We Influence The Internal Motivation Of Employees? Internal Motivation
One way is through the attitude of the management towards their subordinates. This impact includes the attitude, mood and message with which management relates to employees, how they communicate and interact at the workplace, fulfillment of promises, sequence of actions, clear and open principles of leadership, a clear organizational structure, management based on goals and results, recognition of the results achieved, involvement in the process of solving managerial issues, joint search for errors, etc.
Another way is through team relationships. This largely depends on the leadership style and corporate culture adopted in the company.
The third way is through social contacts, networks. For example, meetings in an informal setting. So, New Year’s corporate parties help employees communicate with colleagues in a festive party atmosphere, which, in turn, allows them to get to know their colleagues from the other side, to improve relationships.
Not related to the content of a particular activity , but due to circumstances external to the subject.
External motives are such a group of motives in which motivating factors lie outside the activity. Examples include:
- legal norms;
- prestigious things (house, apartment, car, yacht, etc.);
- the ability to travel.
In the case of external motives, it is not the activity itself that is attractive, but only what is associated with it (for example, prestige, fame, material well-being), and this is often not enough to induce activity.
Extrinsic motivation directly depends on the needs of the person. In the course of production activities, motivation allows employees to meet their basic needs by fulfilling their work duties. Let us recall that a need is a state of a person that acts as a source of his active activity and is created by the need that he feels in relation to the objects necessary for his existence. Consider the main types of external motives, which are based on the needs that are the sources of the employee’s activity.
The motive of power. The desire of the individual to influence people, to dominate and lead other people. Power motivation is one of the most important driving forces behind human action. This is the desire to take a leading position in a group (team). The motive of power occupies an important place in the hierarchy of motives. Many people’s actions are motivated by a need for power.
The need for power is expressed in the desire to influence other people, to control their behavior, as well as the willingness to be responsible for others. This need is expressed in the desire for a leadership position. It has a positive effect on leadership performance. That is why it is advisable to select people with a pronounced need for power for leadership positions. Such people have high self-control.
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Achievement Motive – External Motivation
The desire to achieve high results, to succeed in a competitive environment is of great importance for human behavior. Employees with an acute need for achievement achieve high results primarily when performing tasks requiring a high level of social interaction and good interpersonal relationships 1. People with a high achievement motive prefer to take responsibility when solving problems, tend to set challenging goals for themselves, and take risks to achieve those goals.
They also tend to get feedback on how well they are doing their job. Successful companies actively use such employees, organizing contests and competitions, rewarding the winners, forming design teams, which are entrusted with solving especially important problems. Many scientists consider the motive for achieving the result as the most important factor influencing the working behavior of a person. Employees with such a motive strive for hard-to-achieve goals, for difficult work, they are attracted by independent, varied work, and employees with a low need for achievement, on the contrary, prefer stable, reliable,
Numerous studies have confirmed the relationship between strong achievement motivation and real achievements of a person in various fields of activity. The American scientist D. McClelland showed that people who achieve success in competitive situations had a level of achievement motivation that was significantly higher than the average level.
Leaders who successfully worked in the face of intense competition had a higher need for achievement than their less successful colleagues. But there is also an opposite point of view – that there should be no competition in the work collective, the collective should be a single organism.
The Motive For Professional Growth And Promotion – External Motivation
Leaders can influence the motivation of subordinates, taking into account their need for professional growth and job promotion. Professional development increases the motivation of employees and their dedication to the organization, ensuring continuity in management, and also helps to create a favorable climate in the organization.
By improving their qualifications and acquiring new skills and knowledge, employees become more competitive in the labor market and receive additional opportunities for professional growth both within their organization and outside it. Vocational training also contributes to the overall intellectual development of a person, expands his erudition and social circle, strengthens self-confidence.
The motive of material reward. The material remuneration system for labor, except for wages and bonuses, may include pension savings, participation in profits, tuition (for the employee or his children), medical insurance, mobile communications, interest-free loans to buy a house or car, free of charge lunches, travel expenses for employees, payment for employee rest, etc. Money, as an external motive to encourage activity, is a strategically important point for most people, and not least as a measure of recognition of the significance of their contribution to success.
In today’s high-tech companies, there is the emergence of new landmarks – motifs , associated with the development of Internet technology and the new generation of employees. Traditional external incentives to work began to lose their former importance sharply. A new word has appeared – “gamization”, A new approach to the motivation of modern young employees, which has so far been widely used in Japan.
The term itself originated in the United States in the second half of 2010, when the results of a new marketing ploy applied by different companies, combining sociomedical and gaming factors, were analyzed: instead of the usual bonuses, employees were offered an exciting alternative – participation in the network community with its own system of bonuses, interactive and live contact. with the manufacturer.
Enthusiasts saw the success of this move as a new frontier for the development of mankind, and psychologist Gabe Siegermanp became an ideological inspiration and a key figure in promoting the idea of integrating game elements into all spheres of life, proclaiming the birth of a new era – the “game era”. The new trend has become a notable phenomenon in the world. Suffice it to say that evenGsummit – Large international gamification forums. At one of the Gsummit in New York, for example, Microsoft spokeswoman Sarah Faulkner argued that by 2015 half of the largest companies in the world would be gamified.
The correct impact on a person’s external motivation will encourage him to take action, to grow, motivate him to work and achieve high results both for the employee himself and for the entire company.