What Motivation is? Everything About Motivation

  • Devansh 
  • 18 min read
What motivation is

What Motivation is: It is an impulse to action, which determines the subjective and personal interest of a person in its accomplishment. a dynamic process of a psychophysiological plan that controls human behavior, determines its direction, organization, activity and stability; the ability of a person to actively satisfy his needs.

The motivation of human behavior is nothing more than the characteristics of the ideal side of the action, such as intention, striving, desire. The motive for a person is a material or ideal object, the desire to achieve which is the meaning of actual activity. The motive is given to the person in the form of certain experiences, which are determined by positive emotions from the anticipation of achievement.

In the opposite sense – not receiving anything negative, related to the incompleteness of this provision. The motive is regularly confused with the need and the goal, but the need is, in fact, an unconscious desire to eliminate discomfort, and the goal is the result of conscious goal-setting.

Motivation

Various aspects of motivation are studied by many sciences, such as biology, psychology, sociology, political sciences. Motivation receives content both from the object to which the action is directed, and from the need satisfied as a result of its accomplishment. The presence of various needs and ways of their realization can cause a confrontation of motivations, the result of this, that is, the real choice of motives for action, depends on what stage of personality development a person is at.

The essence of motivation can be characterized by a complex set of components: the type of need, form, degree of actualization, scale and content of the activity performed. In social psychology, a distinction is made between verbal, demonstrative, and real motivations, and the individual is encouraged to satisfy real needs. In sociology, the motivations that determine aggressive behavior, fear of reality, career advancement, sexual behavior and other activities are investigated.

You May Also Like: The Success of Bondage and Accessories for Couples: Which How and Why

Types of Motivation

There are many types of motivation. In general, any motivation of an individual is divided into external and internal motivation. In addition, there are positive and negative motivations. There are also more narrow areas, such as the motivation of affiliation – the desire to establish or maintain relationships with other people; power motivation – the desire of a person to influence other people; achievement motivation – a person’s desire to achieve high results in certain areas; motivation for identification with another person – the desire of one person to be like another; self-development motivation – a very important motive in a person’s life, giving impetus to actions related to work and development; motivation for self-affirmation – the desire to establish oneself in society; negative motivation – motivation caused by the awareness of imminent problems in the case, if the deed is not done; prosocial motivation – actions related to understanding the social significance of activities associated with a sense of duty, a sense of responsibility to people or a group; procedural content motivation – the process of motivation to any activity, caused by the very content of this activity. In addition to the main types of motivation, there are various theories of motivation described by various scientists who at different times studied the process of personal motivation.

Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic external motivation is a motivation that is not related to the content of a certain activity, but due to circumstances external to the subject. External motivation depends on a person’s relationship with the environment. It is regulated by the external psychological and material conditions of activity. Simply put, if a person works for money, then money is an internal motivator, but if it is mainly because of interest in work, then money acts as an external motivator.

Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation, intrinsic, is motivation that is not associated with external circumstances, but with the very content of the activity. Intrinsic motivation implies that a person “bears in himself” the reward for his actions. This is expressed in a sense of their own competence, confidence in their strengths and intentions, satisfaction with the results of their work and self-realization.

You May Also Like: What is External Motivation And Internal Motivation?

Positive and Negative Motivation

In this matter, everything is extremely simple: positive motivation is motivation based on correct and positive incentives, and negative motivation is motivation based on negative incentives. Examples of positive and negative motivations: “ I’ll behave and get a new computer ” or “ if I finish the year without Cs, I’ll get a computer ” are positive motivations. Another example: “ if I behave, I will not be punished ” or “ if I do my homework, I will not be punished ” – this is negative motivation.

Affiliation Motivation

Affiliation is affiliation. In the case of motivation, it means the desire to establish or maintain relationships with other people, the desire to contact and communicate with them. The essence of this kind of motivation lies in the intrinsic value of communication. Affiliate communication is satisfying and exciting. Many people have this type of motivation. For example, a person is going to get a job.

In addition to constant income, some stability, he also has a need to motivate affiliation. That is, a person goes to work to communicate. Also, motivation for affiliation is observed among high school students and students, who for the most part consider communication to be a priority, and education, as a rule, is in second place for many. A person wants to communicate also because he is trying to settle his affairs, to establish connections with the necessary people.

In this case, communication occurs due to other motives. This is a means of satisfying other human needs and has nothing to do with affiliative motivation. Among other things, the goal of affiliate communication can be to search for love relationships, as well as sympathy or flirt with other people.

You May Also Like: How To Stay Motivated And Achieve Your Goals

Power Motivation

Power motivation is a person’s desire to influence other people. Power motivation is a huge driving force for certain people. Striving for power often helps people a lot in becoming. However, the desire for power can force a person to go to any lengths to achieve his goal, even without disdaining dirty methods. So, the motivation of power is the desire of a person to take a leading place among a certain group of people and to lead them.

The motivation for power is very strong. The desire of a person to lead others helps him not to be a gray mass, but to overcome various difficulties and solve problems. Such people, as a rule, are very strong spiritually, they have the ability to influence others. The motive of power can be observed in completely different social layers. For example, junior office workers want to get promoted not at all in order to benefit society or a particular team, but in order to lead the same as themselves. Thus, the lust for power of the middle manager makes him do everything to become a boss and feel more comfortable.

In this case, the success of the enterprise is called into question, since a person thinks only about his own power and influence on others, but not about the well-being and prosperity of the organization. At the same time, other managers may not have a thirst for power and not strive for leadership, but often social parasitism prevails here. Motivation of power occupies a rather high position in the hierarchy of motives. to lead the same as themselves. Thus, the lust for power of the middle manager makes him do everything to become a boss and feel more comfortable.

In this case, the success of the enterprise is called into question, since a person thinks only about his own power and influence on others, but not about the well-being and prosperity of the organization. At the same time, other managers may not have a thirst for power and not strive for leadership, but often social parasitism prevails here.

Motivation of power occupies a rather high position in the hierarchy of motives. to lead the same as themselves. Thus, the lust for power of the middle manager makes him do everything to become a boss and feel more comfortable.

In this case, the success of the enterprise is called into question, since a person thinks only about his own power and influence on others, but not about the well-being and prosperity of the organization. At the same time, other managers may not have a thirst for power and not strive for leadership, but often social parasitism prevails here.

Motivation of power occupies a rather high position in the hierarchy of motives. a person thinks only about his own power and influence on others, but not about the well-being and prosperity of the organization. At the same time, other managers may not have a thirst for power and not strive for leadership, but often social parasitism prevails here.

Motivation of power occupies a rather high position in the hierarchy of motives. a person thinks only about his own power and influence on others, but not about the well-being and prosperity of the organization. At the same time, other managers may not have a thirst for power and not strive for leadership, but often social parasitism prevails here. Motivation of power occupies a rather high position in the hierarchy of motives.

Achievement Motivation

Achievement motive is a person’s eagerness to achieve high results in certain areas of activity, be it sports, study or other victories. The desire of a person to achieve high results is manifested in setting high standards and the desire to achieve them. Motivation for achievement plays almost a key role in a person’s success.

Regardless of the available experience, skills or knowledge, the presence of motivation to achieve a big trump card for a person, because if a person does not want to, he will not get it. Achievement motivation is built on the basis of human predispositions and addictions. For example, someone takes on physics problems and solves them, while someone is engaged in long jumps. To determine the level of achievement motivation, scientists identify 4 main factors: the significance of success, the hope of success;

Motivation To Identify With Another Person

The motivation for identification with another person is the desire of one person to be like another. Often this is some kind of idol, but more often it is an authoritative person (relative), prompting a particular individual to look up to him. A very common example of motivation for identification with another person is adolescents who constantly copy someone.

The motivation for identification with another person does not always have positive results: a person strives to be better. But sometimes people follow the example of bad people. The desire to imitate an idol is a serious motive.

If an idol causes delight, a lot of strong emotions, it subconsciously makes a person shiver. Imitation can be manifested in various aspects, such as clothing, habits, facial expressions, appearance, manner of behavior, etc. When imitating an idol, an individual has self-confidence, an energetic upsurge occurs.

You May Also Like: What Motivation Is In Simple Words? Formula & Outcome

Maslow’s Motivation

Abraham Harold Maslow – American psychologist, founder of humanistic psychology. The author of the famous work “Motivation and Personality,” in which he suggested that all human needs, whether innate or instinctive, are organized into a certain system of hierarchy, priority, and dominance. This system is called “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”. Numerous works in this direction were carried out by other scientists.

The steps of the hierarchy of human needs, the so-called “Maslow’s Pyramid”:

  • Physiological
  • Safety
  • Love / Belonging to something
  • Respect
  • Cognition
  • Aesthetic
  • Self-actualization

The last three levels of the hierarchy of human needs: “cognition”, “aesthetic” and “self-actualization” are called “The need for self-expression”.

The main essence of Maslow’s work is that the human needs of the higher levels do not motivate until they are satisfied, at least partially, the needs of the lower level. Nevertheless, psychologists and scientists of our time, in addition to the five “author’s levels of needs,” add cognitive and aesthetic as individual needs. They have a level above the need for respect, but below the need for personal self-realization.

Today, taking into account modern features in the current interpretation, the “Maslow pyramid” looks like this:

  • Self-realization
  • Cognitive and aesthetic needs
  • Needs for respect, approval, appreciation, recognition, competence
  • Needs for love, affection, belonging to a group
  • Needs for physical and mental security, ensuring tomorrow
  • Physiological needs (food, water and air)

In addition, it should be noted that according to Maslow, the path to the realization of the potential of the individual, i.e. to self-realization, lies through the consistent satisfaction of the needs of the lowest level. Need determines the motives of behavior.

A person who has reached the level of self-realization, is not burdened by petty concerns, has in his arsenal, first of all, high self-esteem, easily and openly accepts others, does not depend on conventions, is simple in communication, has a good sense of humor, and is inclined to inspiration. The role of the location of needs in a person’s life has a significant impact on the realization of the meaning of life.

Such theories of motivation are called meaningful, because they try to determine the needs that motivate a person to action, and in particular when determining the volume and content of work. In addition to Abraham Harold Maslow, David Macklelland and F. Herzberg (Two-factor model of behavior) have their own substantial theories of motivation.

McClelland’s Motivation

McClelland’s theory of needs is based on the fact that Maslow’s classification of needs may not be complete. The scientist believed that three needs are inherent in people: power, success and involvement. The need for power is expressed as a desire to influence other people. The need for success falls somewhere in between the need for respect and the need for self-expression.

This need is met not by proclaiming the success of this person, which only confirms his status, but by the process of bringing the work to a successful conclusion. In McClelland’s theory, there is a fair idea for American society about the most desirable motive for behavior – the desire for success.

The challenge is to ensure that the employee’s overall focus on success is aligned with success in achieving the corporate goals. Involvement motivation is similar to Maslow’s motivation. Such individuals are interested in the company of acquaintances, establishing friendships, and helping other people. A person with a developed need for involvement will be attracted to work that will give them extensive opportunities for social interaction.

Two-factor Theory Of Frederick Herzberg

Frederick Herzberg’s theory is a need-based motivation model. F. Herzberg’s theory has been known and popular in the West since 1959. Particular attention is paid to earnings, in particular, earnings in Herzberg’s theory are not a motivating factor. This casts doubt on the whole theory of personnel motivation related to attempts by managers to motivate their employees financially.

In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a needs-based motivation model called the Job Satisfaction Theory. According to this theory, at work, along with certain factors that cause job satisfaction, at the same time, there are a number of factors that cause job dissatisfaction. The author of the theory believed that what people think about their work and this makes them happy or unhappy, satisfied or not).

For the study, a large number of people were interviewed who were asked two questions:

“Can you describe in detail when you felt good after doing your job?”

“Can you describe in detail when you felt bad after doing your job?”

The conclusions made by the scientist were divided into two categories, which were called “hygiene factors” and “motivation”. Thus, the scientist concluded that the absence of motivators, and they are associated with the nature and essence of the work itself, does not lead to people’s dissatisfaction with work, but their presence in due measure causes satisfaction and motivates workers to take the necessary actions and increase efficiency.

There is an opinion that the theory of Frederick Herzberg fits only the American model of society. This is due to the fact that, according to Herzberg, the average US resident has 90% of physiological needs satisfied, 70% of safety, 40% of respect, and 15% of self-actualization. It is likely that the harsh realities of the Russian labor market do not allow this theory to be applied in our country.

Self Development Motivation

Motivation for self-development is a very important motive in the life of any person. It gives impetus to work and developmental actions. Self-development motivation can be blocked by the desire for safety and self-preservation. Why is this happening? It is believed that in order to move forward, a person requires first of all courage. But when a person turns to his memory and subconsciousness, he remembers what happened to him before, sees what is happening to him now.

A man clings to the past, he remembers his mistakes and does not risk taking a step forward. The threat of losing what you have often prevents people from taking the first step. They don’t even know that all the fun is just outside the wall of their comfort zone. It turns out that a person rushes between the desire to go forward and develop and the desire to be in a safe zone.

Believed that the development of personality occurs at the very moment when a person, without looking back at the past and without fear, makes a bold step forward. Even if this step was just overcoming your fears and did not bring anything significant, it is a huge leap for the individual. It will bring much more joy and satisfaction than if a person was sitting still and doing nothing.

Self-Affirmation Motivation

Self-affirmation motivation is the desire to establish oneself in society. Usually this motive is associated with dignity and pride. A person with a motive for self-affirmation wants to achieve a certain status in society, to gain respect and recognition. Often the desire for self-affirmation is ranked as the motivation for prestige. Thus, the motive for self-affirmation and raising one’s status in society leads to an increase in self-esteem and gives an impetus to work and further self-development.

Negative Motivation

Motivation caused by the awareness of imminent problems or troubles if the job is not done. A striking example of negative motivation is school children. Negative motivation in this case is created by the parents with the threat of default. For example, if a child ends the year with triplets, he will not see the new computer. This is the most common example of negative motivation for children.

In this case, the student will do everything to finish the year at 4 and 5, then the parents will buy him a new computer. Thus, the child’s learning with this kind of motivation becomes a coercive but protective action. Those. negative in this case does not mean bad. Negative motivation has several different forms that affect a person.

It can be verbal punishment, condemnation, material punishment, neglect, censure, imprisonment or physical abuse. No healthy person wants to be punished or rejected. Therefore, negative motivation takes place. But negative motivation has a significant minus. It lies in the short duration of the effect. In addition, there may be a number of other difficulties caused by this kind of motivation.

Prosocial Motivation

Prosocial motivation is actions related to the understanding of the social significance of activities associated with a sense of duty, a sense of responsibility to people or a group. A person feels like a part of a team, a group of people for which he is responsible by his actions, lives by the interests and concerns of this group of people.

Such people are more qualified for their work. This kind of motivation is very effective in the workplace. The fact is that a person, feeling responsibility for himself and the company, is pro-socially motivated, will do his job more and better, as he will feel part of the common cause.

For the head of the company, an important factor is to provide such motivation to all interested employees, since without identification with subordinates, their values ​​and interests, it is impossible to create a successfully working mechanism where each employee knows his place and feels a share of his responsibility. It follows from this that prosocial motivation, which is associated with group identification, a sense of duty, and a certain amount of responsibility, are important in motivating a person to work.

Procedural And Content Motivation

Procedural-content motivation is the process of inducement to any activity, caused by the very content of this activity. In other words, if a person likes to do something, he does it. At the same time, it makes no difference, brain activity or handwork. Often, procedural and substantive motivation translates into a person’s hobby. It is also worth noting that a person can go in for sports for their own pleasure, without pursuing any other motives other than satisfying their own interests. The meaning of procedural content motivation lies in the activity itself.